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      School of Entrepreneurship Research

      Abstract Report 2021

The Effects of Neurodiversity on Cognitive Attributes of Early-Stage Entrepreneurs

Utilizing a neuropathology perspective and conservation of resources theory, we investigated the relationship between neurodiversity and entrepreneurial cognition. Specifically, we introduce the resource-induced coping heuristic (RICH) as a mechanism to explain the relationship that ADHD has with entrepreneurial alertness, cognitive adaptability, and entrepreneurial intent. Our findings indicate that RICH fully mediates the relationship between ADHD has with entrepreneurial alertness, cognitive adaptability, and entrepreneurial intent. 

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, University of Memphis, West Virginia University

PI/PDs: Curt B. Moore

University of Memphis: Stephen Lanivich

West Virginia University: Nancy McIntire 

 

External Corporate Governance Mechanisms: Considering Markets and Networks

External corporate governance mechanisms are forces that promote governance structures and practices by top executives and board directors that emanate from outside of the organization. Institutions, industries, markets, and networks all work to influence governance decisions and behaviors both directly and indirectly through interactions with internal corporate governance mechanisms. These mechanisms may induce behaviors that are desirable to external stakeholders or intervene when internal mechanisms are compromised or ineffective.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Louisiana State University

PI/PDs: Curt B. Moore

Louisiana State University: G. Tyge Payne

 

An Introductory Guide to the use of Social Network Analysis in Family Business Research

We present a practical, introductory guide on the use of social network analysis to examine social structures (e.g., family and organization) in family business research.  We present an overview of social networks coupled with a taxonomy of social ties.  Then, we discuss the basics of designing social network research with a focus on data collection and management.  Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Boise State University

PI/PDs: Curt B. Moore

Boise State University: Karen Nicholas

 

Network Safeguards to Knowledge Spillovers in Strategic Alliance Networks

Firms gain from their strategic alliance networks, both in terms of resources and knowledge.  Knowledge spillovers have traditionally been viewed in terms of benefits to recipient firms.  From the perspective of a firm with valuable knowledge assets, the potential expropriation of rents may be avoided by implementing network.  Therefore, once a firm has generated knowledge assets externally through its strategic alliance network, it may subsequently seek to safeguard knowledge assets by altering their network of alliance relations. 

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Boise State University

PI/PDs: Curt B. Moore

Boise State University: Karen Nicholas

 

Women’s Collective Entrepreneurship: Catalyzing Innovation in Emerging Markets

Studies show that women make significant contributions to innovation in developed economies, but less is known about their contributions in emerging markets where institutional factors often restrict women’s entrepreneurial activities. Thus, we investigate how women contribute to innovation in emerging markets despite contextual constraints. We recognize the benefits of women’s collective entrepreneurship and integrate transactive memory theory to hypothesize that when more women are represented and more frequent communication exists in the SME, innovation is enhanced.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Texas State University

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison, Curt B. Moore, Joyce Nabisaalu

Texas State University: Joshua Daspit

 

Opaque Costly Signals and Debt Contracts

New Ventures that are unable to fund expansion using internal equity and prefer to maintain complete firm ownership may supplement existing cash flow by accessing external funds in the form of debt contracts (Berger & Udell, 1998). These firms send signals to external stakeholders that represent a sufficient level of legitimacy and worthiness of investment. However, many new ventures are unable to send preferred costly signals because they do not possess them.  In this study, I examine specific signals that carry the preferred costly weight needed to gain a stakeholder’s perception of legitimacy.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Baylor University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Curt B. Moore

Baylor University: Lee Grumbles

 

Will Crypto Become Actual? An Institutional Approach to Cryptocurrency

How can cryptocurrency gain legitimacy in the eyes of users? We propose that cryptocurrency firms, through evasive entrepreneurial actions reflected by rhetorical strategies, can acquire legitimacy in the market that will ultimately reduce institutional uncertainty.  Drawing from Williamson’s (1998, 2000) hierarchical model of institutional systems, we propose that legitimacy acquisition at the market level via evasive action will attenuate uncertainty in the formal institutional environment; which will beget additional legitimacy for cryptocurrencies, and thus higher performance to those firms, on average.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips, Per Bylund, Curt B. Moore

 

New Venture Legitimacy Diffusion: The Role of Storytelling and Social Networks

Legitimacy diffusion is critical for new venture success, survival, and growth. Storytelling is a powerful technique to acquire legitimacy as well as to diffuse it. The focus of the current study is to analyze the role of storytelling in social media, specifically on Twitter. We also investigate the moderating effects of social networks based on network density and eigenvector centrality.  Results indicate that storytelling in social media can be effective in legitimacy diffusion and that storytelling elements influence the extent on diffusion, specifically cognitive, pragmatic, and emotional elements as well as network density and eigenvector centrality. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips, Curt B. Moore

 

When Family Business Meets Social Enterprise: An Integrative Review and Future Research Agenda

Family businesses and social enterprises are typically examined as distinct organizational forms, yet scholars in these domains often study similar phenomena. While both domains acknowledge the significant role of family in hybrid organizational missions, findings vary in emphasis and rhetoric. Our review of 117 articles, published in 59 journals between 1996 and 2020, capitalizes on this connection and attempts to integrate the varying perspectives. We consider the common underlying research motivations, illuminate the role of family in advancing social missions and creating social value, and provide a foundation for future research that can extend family business and social enterprise domains.

Sponsors: State of Oklahoma, Kennesaw State University, California Polytechnic State University, Ryerson University

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison

Kennesaw State University: Robert V. Randolph

California Polytechnic State University: Benjamin N. Alexander

Ryerson University: Francesco Barbera

 

Women’s Collective Entrepreneurship: Catalyzing Innovation in Emerging Markets

Our study investigates how women contribute to innovation in emerging markets despite the institutional constraints prevalent in this context. We recognize the benefits of women’s collective entrepreneurship and integrate transactive memory theory to hypothesize that when more women are represented and more frequent communication exists in the venture, innovation is enhanced. Data from 805 SMEs in 34 emerging markets support our theorizing; although, results reveal different effects based on the innovation type. Overall, findings indicate that women catalyze innovation when they have strength in numbers, which highlights the importance of women’s collective entrepreneurship in gender-restrictive contexts.

Sponsors: State of Oklahoma, Texas State University

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison, Curt B. Moore, Joyce Komakech Nabisaalu

Texas State University: Joshua J. Daspit

 

Parenting Legacy: How Parenting Style Affects Family Business Successors and their Employees

Transferring leadership across generations is a defining characteristic of family firms. Yet many successors underperform, and little is known about why. We extend parental control theory to develop a model of parenting legacy in family firms. Primary dyadic data from successors and subordinates in 119 family firms, supplemented with 24 interviews with family firm leaders, shows that predecessors’ parenting style affects successors’ psychological functioning, which impacts employees’ citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. Among firms that make it to the second generation, the seeds of success are partially sown long before succession takes place, drawing attention to the important role of parenting.

Sponsors: State of Oklahoma, Middle Tennessee State University, University of Central Florida, Northeastern University

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison

Middle Tennessee State University: Kristen K. Shanine

University of Central Florida: James G. Combs

Northeastern University: Kimberly A. Eddleston

 

Employer Branding in Family Firms: The Influence of Category-Based Beliefs on Applicant Attraction

Family firms often face challenges attracting employees. We theorize and test a parallel mediation model that highlights the importance of the family firm brand in the recruitment process. Results indicate that job seekers have opposing category-based beliefs about family firms that influence their level of attraction: they have negative perceptions of family firm HR systems but positive perceptions of family firm brand authenticity, with authenticity exhibiting a stronger positive influence on applicant attraction. These findings provide nuanced insight into how employer branding can fit into the overall HR system and strategy of family firms to reap advantages over nonfamily firms.

Sponsors: State of Oklahoma, University of Witten-Herdecke, University of Bern, University of North Carolina-Charlotte

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison

University of Witten-Herdecke: Sandra Wolf

University of Bern: Andreas Hack

University of North Carolina-Charlotte: Franz W. Kellermanns

 

Linking the Entrepreneur’s Childhood Communication Patterns to the Innovativeness of their Ventures

This study integrates human communication and imprinting theories to advance our understanding of family firm innovation. Using primary triadic data from leaders, family employees, and nonfamily employees in 38 U.S. family firms, results demonstrate the more effective the human communication within the family, the more effective the organizational communication within the family firm and subsequently, the greater the innovativeness. However, due to differing perceptions of family and nonfamily employees, results indicate founder communication patterns do not fully imprint on the family firm. This implies the relationship between founder imprinting and organizational outcomes is more nuanced than theory would suggest.

Sponsors: State of Oklahoma, Mississippi State University

PI/PDs: Kristen Madison

Mississippi State University: Emily G. Marett

 

Entrepreneurial Response to Interstate Regulatory Competition: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment

How do entrepreneurs decide between specific entrepreneurial opportunities? We conduct a discrete choice experiment (DCE) with a population of entrepreneurs/small business owners how they perceive and decide between specific opportunities in the food industry. Using latent class logit analysis, we separate our sample based on entrepreneurs’ revealed utility functions and are so able to distinguish two distinct types of entrepreneurial decision-making. Our findings suggest that not only are entrepreneurs different from non-entrepreneurs, but there are different types of entrepreneurs who perceive opportunities differently. This decomposes the entrepreneurship concept and suggests that we should predict different types of entrepreneurs to act differently.

Sponsors:  Oklahoma State University, Michigan State University

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

Michigan State University: Trey Malone

 

Overcoming Uncertainty, Resilience, & Overconfidence in Entrepreneurship

We use conjoint experiments to provide empirical evidence regarding how individuals in the early stages of the entrepreneurial process and under different levels of uncertainty are influenced by the individual’s resilience and overconfidence in their propensity to pursue entrepreneurial action. Results support the view that higher levels of individual resilience will partially mitigate the hindrances to entrepreneurial action associated with higher levels of uncertainty, while, counterintuitively, the results of overconfidence were not significant. Consequences of these findings for these theory of entrepreneurship under uncertainty are discussed.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Per Bylund, Fernando D’Andrea, Steven Trost

 

Effectuation and The Logic of Action: A Critical Assessment from a Praxeological

Perspective

Building on recent discussions about the veracity of effectuation research, we analyze the theoretical structure of effectuation. We rely on a rarely used method for reasoning about social phenomena prevalent in the contemporary Austrian School – formalized as praxeology – to systematically probe into effectuation challenging its core tenets, identifying critical issues that need to be addressed, and offering possible actionable remedies. Based on our analyses, we question the novelty and usefulness of effectuation principles for entrepreneurship research and practice, and highlight avenues for constructive scholarship in this area. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, University of Alabama Birmingham

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

University of Alabama Birmingham: Vishal Gupta

 

Where do factor markets come from? Toward a Resource-Based Theory of the Entrepreneurial Firm

We argue that the firm as a precondition to and a creator of factor markets. We suggest that the firm is the means through which such advantages are established, an island of entrepreneurial innovation, that provides the means through which goods otherwise not possible in the market are brought into being. The firm is the entrepreneur’s means of realizing an imagined competitive advantage. We contribute to a rich literature exploring the roots of entrepreneurial strategy, and our exploration of entrepreneurial factor markets provides an essential theoretical link necessary for a creation-infused account of entrepreneurial firm formation.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, University of Utah

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

University of Utah: Robert Wuebker

 

Boundaries of Strategic Theory and Its Implications for Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship draws on theories in strategy to answer its central questions, and strategy increasingly looks at the origins of new value, disclosing a mismatch between canonical strategic theories and their application where value creation, rather than discovery or exploitation, are the focus. We claim that there are important and often-neglected boundary conditions for strategic theories applied to entrepreneurial settings. This misapplication of strategic theories in entrepreneurship has important implications for the program of research in entrepreneurship, strategic entrepreneurship, and strategy, and calls for new theory at the intersection of entrepreneurship and strategy focused on the origins of new value.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, University of Utah

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

University of Utah: Robert Wuebker

 

Crypto vs. Fiat: An institutional approach

We propose that cryptocurrency firms can acquire market legitimacy that will ultimately reduce institutional uncertainty and propose a process model in which that legitimacy acquired at the market level via evasive action will reduce uncertainty in the formal institutional environment, which will beget additional legitimacy for cryptocurrencies, and thus higher performance to those firms, on average. This study (1) extends our understanding of the evolution of an innovation and its diffusion under institutional uncertainty, (2) elucidates how cryptocurrency can become a medium of exchange, and (3) contributes to the development of institutional theory.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Per Bylund, Curt B. Moore, Matt Rutherford

 

The Effects of Country-level Institutional Configurations on the Entrepreneurship Process

This research performs an exploratory comparative institutional analysis to understand how country-level institutional configurations may shape the entrepreneurship process. The study uses fsQCA to examine how different characteristics of institutional contexts (i.e., informal institutional support, formal institutional strength, and formal institutional efficiency) generate distinct national institutional configurations with varying advantages for entrepreneurial activities performed at the early vs. the late stage of the entrepreneurship process, thereby affecting the productivity of entrepreneurship in countries. The study’s findings are discussed to form new theory on why certain institutional profiles are more or less effective in promoting entrepreneurial activities throughout the entrepreneurship process.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Mississippi State University

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

Mississippi State University: Sohrab Soleimanof, Hessamoddin Sarooghi

 

A Process Theory of Value and its Implications for Entrepreneurship and the Market

Process

We advance a conception of value as a process, and formalize an integrative theory of subjective value—phenomenal value theory—that depicts value in terms of an experiential learning process. We build upon dualist philosophy to explain how the term ‘value’ describes both the experience of subjective benefit as well as the ascription of benefit (expected or realized) to specific sources. We then leverage phenomenal value theory to revisit market process theory. Our entrepreneurial market process theory offers important and previously unrecognized implications regarding the nature and costs of regulatory policy in fettering the value learning process.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, University of Nevada Reno

PI/PDs: Per Bylund

University of Nevada Reno: Mark Packard

 

New Venture Social Media Legitimacy: The Role of Antenarratives and Social Networks

Can online fragments of stories—antenarratives—influence legitimacy judgments of audiences? While the work on fully formed narratives and legitimacy is advancing, we know very little about online antenarratives and their legitimacy inducing impact. Drawing on cultural entrepreneurship theory, we offer an empirical analysis of a large, unique dataset and develop a novel dictionary to analyze the new ventures’ tweets. Our results indicate that tweets containing legitimating content positively affect social media legitimacy, while emotive content is negatively related to social media legitimacy. We further find the size of an actor’s social media network moderates our antecedents in somewhat unexpected ways.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Matt Rutherford, Curt B. Moore

 

Optimally Distinctive or Optimally Isomorphic? A Quasi-Experimental Investigation of New Venture Names

How do organizations saddled with extreme liabilities of newness choose a name that will assist in the difficult process of emergence? Drawing on optimal distinctiveness theory and literature from marketing, we propose that new ventures whose names communicate both distinctiveness and conformity will attain elusive legitimacy judgments from audiences. We find that; indeed, both are important; but the connotations of distinctiveness of a ventures name are more strongly associated with legitimacy and subsequent performance than the connotations of conformity. Moreover, while names conveying conformity have curvilinear relation with legitimacy, names transmitting distinctiveness possess a linear relationship.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Matt Rutherford

Department of Management: Bryan Edwards

 

Legitimate Distinctiveness via Cultural Entrepreneurship in New Ventures

“To be different or to be the same?” Adopting a cultural entrepreneurship process model, we submit that both competitive distinctiveness and institutional conformity can individually serve as legitimating strategies in identity development by forming propriety judgements and that legitimacy mediates their relationships performance. Moreover, we suggest that these relationships will be contingent upon validity judgments of category appeal. We develop theory around, and test, the relationship between distinctiveness and pragmatic legitimacy and challenge the longstanding path-dependent assertion that prioritizes conformity. Using a mixed methods approach, we test the hypotheses through two separate studies.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Matt Rutherford

 

Crypto vs. Fiat: An Institutional Approach

How can cryptocurrency gain legitimacy in the eyes of users? We propose that cryptocurrency firms can acquire market legitimacy that will ultimately reduce institutional uncertainty, through rhetorical strategies that circumvent the existing institutional framework. Drawing on recent theory of institutional uncertainty, we propose a process model in which that legitimacy acquired at the market level via evasive action will reduce uncertainty in the formal institutional environment, which will beget additional legitimacy for cryptocurrencies, and thus higher performance to those firms. This study extends our understanding of the evolution of an innovation under institutional uncertainty, elucidates how cryptocurrency can become a medium of exchange, and contributes to the development of institutional theory.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Per Bylund, Matt Rutherford, Curt B. Moore

 

What do we “Know” about New Venture Legitimacy: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relation between New Venture Legitimacy and Firm Performance

We present insights, based on the sum total of the accumulated empirical knowledge in the literature, regarding the relation between legitimacy and firm performance in new entrepreneurial ventures. Our meta-analysis that captured legitimacy in new, as well as mature, ventures illustrates four primary insights that we could not have otherwise inferred from the extant literature. We discuss the implications of these findings—both theoretical and practical—and we explore multiple avenues for future research to advance the literature with regards to legitimacy in new ventures.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Matt Rutherford

 

Opaque Costly Signals and Debt Contracts

New Ventures that are unable to fund expansion using internal equity and prefer to maintain complete firm ownership may supplement existing cash flow by accessing external funds in the form of debt contracts (Berger & Udell, 1998). These firms send signals to external stakeholders that represent a sufficient level of legitimacy and worthiness of investment. However, many new ventures are unable to send preferred costly signals because they do not possess them.  In this study, I examine specific signals that carry the preferred costly weight needed to gain a stakeholder’s perception of legitimacy, however are difficult to fully verify.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Baylor University

PI/PDs: Duygu Phillips, Matt Rutherford, Curt B. Moore

Department of Management: Bryan Edwards

Baylor University: Lee Grumbles

 

An Introduction and Clarification of Ex Nihilo Propriety

Organizational legitimacy attainment is one of the most important precursors to the success of new ventures. However, an underrepresentation within the entrepreneurship literature—describing and examining the actual attainment of legitimacy—has been apparent. To address this omission, we present a discussion of the earliest of all legitimacy types to be attained, which we term ex nihilo propriety. We provide a brief review of the theoretical framework. We then discuss the nomological network of this novel construct. In conclusion, we offer multiple theoretical propositions to serve as guidance for the empirical testing of this newly conceptualized legitimacy construct.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips

 

Bootstrapping: Complementary Lines of Inquiry in Entrepreneurship

Bootstrapping is a term, a construct, and a paradigm that has attracted substantial attention from both popular press writers and scholarly researchers. However, insights from existing theory (e.g., signaling, cultural entrepreneurship) as well as the relatively recent development of closely related bases (e.g., effectuation, bricolage) can complement and advance bootstrapping by adding theoretical breadth and depth. When understood alongside these related lines of research in entrepreneurship, researchers are better equipped to create, catalog, and accumulate knowledge regarding bootstrapping. In turn, educators will be more effective in communicating how entrepreneurs are able to launch in resource poor environments, and ultimately achieve success.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips

 

The Bootstrapping-Bricolage Interface

The entrepreneurial frameworks of bootstrapping and bricolage both address the broad challenge of surviving and thriving under conditions of resource scarcity. However, while similar in this regard, these frameworks also possess distinct attributes. Bootstrapping has been traditionally more focused upon exploring issues concerned with financing choices, whereas bricolage considers a broader range of, mostly improvisational, activities. These improvisational activities can be considerations of financial capital, but may also include social, human, and institutional capital. In this work, we outline the similarities and divergences between the two frameworks, and cast them as opportunities for developing scholarly work in entrepreneurship. 

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips, Jorge Arteaga

 

Nonresponse Bias in Family Business Research

How do response rates influence outcomes in family business studies? Relatedly and perhaps more importantly, how do they influence the collective quality of family business research? Although there is wide consensus that response rates—and the resultant nonresponse bias—matter in scientific research, there is considerable debate regarding their substantive effect on the studied relationships. Here, we address this issue in family business research. Our broad purpose is to take up on a well-accepted issue in research and provide a guide on strategies to reduce nonresponse bias, enhance study quality and advance the growing field of family business research.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford, Duygu Phillips

 

Building Durability Capabilities

New Venture Navigation of the Great Recession  

Results from an analysis of 2,500 firms that were founded just prior to the start of the Great Recession indicate that new ventures which display a commitment towards “durability resources” are more likely to survive a recession—and thrive afterword. With regard to combinations of these resources, we found that firms could be described in one of four ways: 1) Resource-Constrained, 2) Bootstrappers, 3) Adequate, and 4) Beneficent. With the exception of the Resource-Constrained, all types demonstrated some association with elevated performance during a recession; but the Beneficent firms were the most strongly associated.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, DePaul University, Samford University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford

DePaul University: Paul Sanchez-Ruiz

Samford University: Matt Mazzei

 

Deliberate Practice as Entrepreneurship Curriculum: A Study of Middle School Girls in Economically Challenged Regions

Can the deliberate practice process be employed to swiftly improve individual entrepreneurial performance? To address this question, a curriculum was developed based on the deliberate practice model and administered to middle school girls from economically challenged regions to determine whether deliberate entrepreneurial skills practice could lead to the expeditious acquisition of enhanced entrepreneurial performance. Our findings confirmed the conceptual relationship between deliberate practice and entrepreneurial performance. It is hoped that the results of this study can be used by researchers, educators, and policy makers to address a general lack of entrepreneurship in economically challenged regions with knowledge and skills to create a new business.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, ARDX, Southwestern Oklahoma State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford

ARDX: Angela Reddix

Southwestern Oklahoma State University: Lincoln Brown

 

An Introduction and Clarification of ‘Ex Nihilo’ Propriety

Organizational legitimacy attainment is one of the most important precursors to the success of new ventures. Until now, an omission within the entrepreneurship literature describing and examining the attainment of legitimacy has been apparent. Previously, the identification and description of the attainment of legitimacy that occurs in the earliest stages of new venture development have been neglected. Consequently, the following is a description and discussion of the earliest of all legitimacy types to be attained, ex nihilo legitimacy. Next, the nomological network of the new construct is discussed.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, North Carolina State, Samford University, Bradley University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford

North Carolina State: Jeffrey M. Pollack

Samford University: Matt Mazzei

Bradley University: Brian G. Nagy

 

Cronyism and Entrepreneurship: How the Interplay Between Informal and Formal National Institutions Can Impact Country-Level Entrepreneurship?

Cronyism is the practice of favoritism based on connections. The institutionalization of cronyism as a rational practice within a context promotes rewards for unproductive behaviors at the expense of productive behaviors. This study strives to explain how the prevalence of cronyism can increase unproductive entrepreneurship and decrease productive entrepreneurship in different countries. Moreover, this research examines the moderating role of formal, inclusive institutions—rule of law—on the relation between cronyism and entrepreneurial motives. Analysis of data from 96 countries over 7 years provides empirical support for the notion that productive entrepreneurship and cronyism are inversely related.   

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Louisiana State University

PI/PDs: Matt Rutherford

Louisiana State University: Sohrab Soleimanof

 

Legitimation in De Novo Firms: A Microfoundational Perspective

We engaged in a longitudinal multiple case study whereby we followed three firms over a period of five years.  The data gathered and analyzed here suggest that stakeholders predominantly make legitimacy judgments about new ventures along two lines: relational and technological appropriateness.  With regard to the former, in new ventures, stakeholders prefer to perceive appropriate: 1) board members, 2) partners, 3) human resources, and 4) communications with stakeholders.  With regard to the later, we found that stakeholders prefer appropriate: 1) levels of product novelty, 2) levels of product testing and development, and 3) integration with existing technology.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, The Artic University of Norway, DePaul University

PI/PDs:  Matt Rutherford

The Artic University of Norway: Elin M. Oftedal, Lene Foss

DePaul University: Paul Sanchez-Ruiz

 

The Attracted but Ill-Suited Entrepreneur: The Dark Dyad’s Link to Resource Depletion and New Firm Performance

Previous studies have shown positive outcomes related to dark characteristics suggesting that they are beneficial for the individual while being detrimental to others and society. This study extends the existing literature by investigating dark dyad’s deleterious outcomes related both to the individual, i.e. individual burnout, as well as to others, i.e. reduced employee and firm performance. A sample of 299 entrepreneurs-employee dyads significantly demonstrated that entrepreneurs’ dark triad traits are positively correlated with burnout, and negatively correlated with their employees’ performance and new venture sales.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Ball State University

PI/PDs:  Jonathan Butler, Imran Syed

 

For Better or for Worse: Spousal New Venture Employment, Founder Passion, and Founder Burnout

Because the startup environment is resource constrained, often entrepreneurs turn to spouses for low or no cost sources of human capital (Blenkinsopp & Owens, 2010; Dyer, Dyer, & Gardner, 2012) without considering how that decision may affect their own well-being. Extending the Sustainable Family Business Theory (SFBT Werbel & Danes, 2010), this paper examines how spouses act as resource gatekeepers, monitoring the flow of resources between the family and business systems.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Ball State University

PI/PDs:  Jonathan Butler, Imran Syed

 

Illuminating the Dark: The Dark Triad’s Threat to New Venture Performance and Employee Creativity

Miller (2014) recently called for increased research into the dark side of entrepreneurship. The dark triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), introduced by Paulhus and Williams (2002), were recently found to be over-represented among entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship students (Akhtar et al., 2013; Mathieu & St-Jean, 2013). Founders with dark triad characteristics initially appear to be ideal leaders (Maccoby, 2000). However, the dark triad share attributes of manipulation, superiority, low-empathy, and moral deficit (Wai & Tiliopoulos, 2012, Furnham et al., 2013) which over time undermine social exchanges by violating reciprocity assumptions.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PD:  Jonathan Butler

 

Imagination & Entrepreneurial Alertness in the Midst of Adversity: The Influence of Social Capital

Cognitive Adaptation Theory (Taylor, 1983) describes how individuals, in response to adversity, use imagination and imagined futures for self-enhancement and to gain control of one’s life. In this study, the authors hypothesize that adversity will be positively related to entrepreneurial alertness when mediated by factors of imagination including prospective thinking, perspective taking, and counter-factual thinking. For nascent entrepreneurs currently suffering from adversity (natural disasters, economic downturn, or adverse events) this study provides hope in that it is expected to demonstrate that adversity may be linked to higher ability to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PD:  Jonathan Butler

 

The Nature of Entrepreneurial Imagination: A Process Perspective

This work-in-progress paper seeks to offer more definitive view of the nature of entrepreneurial imagination and demonstrate the reasons why imagination is directly relevant to entrepreneurship. Taking cues from cognition and economics literatures, the authors seek to develop a theoretical framework concerning the role of imagination is several key aspects of the entrepreneurial process including concept ideation, entrepreneurial alertness, and opportunity recognition. Finally, the implications and potential contributions of the proposed framework will be explored.

Sponsor: Oklahoma State University

PI/PD:  Jonathan Butler

 

Antecedents and Consequences of Individual-Level Trust in the Fields of Management and Entrepreneurship

When an individual has trust in another individual there is always a possibility that the other individual will break that trust. Trust is similar to a bet we take on others. It has an inherent element of risk (DeSteno, 2014). Why then do individuals trust each other? What role does trust play, if any, in management and entrepreneurship? This work-in-progress paper strives to take an initial step towards answering these questions. This paper explores the need and rationale for trust, its biological and chemical foundations, as well as some of the implications of trust for management and entrepreneurship.

Sponsors: Oklahoma State University, Ball State University

PI/PDs:  Jonathan Butler, Imran Syed

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